. R. B TREMBLING ASPEN (Populus tremuloides Michx.) The female adult beetle digs burrows at the base of the host tree. They may be found in stored … Mature larvae are blackish with two white spots on each side. Ontogenetic shifts in foliar chemistry, including decreased phenolic glycoside and increased CT concentrations, may preclude cottonwood leaf beetles from using mature aspen trees. Fig. S For example, Lin et al. J Thus, each experimental unit consisted of an assemblageof 20 individual larvae from two to three egg clutches (all hatched within a several-hour period). Adults feed on leaf stems (petioles) and bark of tender shoots, occasionally causing shoots to break, wilt and die, a symptom called, flagging.”. Theapical bud and youngest portion of the trees protruded beyond the sleeve to allow for continued leaf development. L. J The adult is an elongate, robust, strikingly patterned beetle that is approximately 1-1 3/4 inches (2.5-4.4 cm) long and 1/2 inch (13 mm) wide (fig. Larval performance of the cottonwood leaf beetle, Chrysomela scripta F., was evaluated in relation to genetic variation in phytochemical characteristics among first year micropropagated ramets of five aspen clones (Populus tremuloides Michx.). We used regression analyses to assess relationships between host quality (water, N, CT, salicortin, tremulacin, and TPG) andinsect performance. Most stag beetles live around rotting logs on which the larvae feed. The larvae can grow up to 1 ½ inch long. Sellmer The adult beetle can be found on branches and the trunks of many trees such as willow trees, and of course, cottonwood trees. Jones Each female can lay up to 800 eggs. Haissig McCarthy Berbee Larvae and pupae were counted twice daily. The insect can cause serious defoliation and injury to young plantations, nurseries and ornamental trees. They are red, orange or yellow with black spots/broken black lines on the elytra, and a reddish or yellow margin on the thorax. 1). Romme Bar bearing different letters are significantly different (Proc GLM; SAS Institute 1998, 2001; Tukey test, α=0.05). R. L Cottonwood borers primarily infest cottonwood, but also occur on poplars and willows. Several other species of lady beetles, predaceous bugs, and two species of parasites also destroy leaf beetle eggs and larvae. Search for other works by this author on: Effects of CO2 and light on tree phytochemistry and insect performance, Effects of cottonwood leaf beetle Chrysomela scripta (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) on survival and growth of fremont cottonwood (Populus fremontii) in northwest Colorado, Occurrence and performance of the aspen blotch miner, Phyllonorycter salicifoliella, on three host-tree species, Influence of pulp and paper mill wastewater on Chrysomela scripta (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) performance and Populus plant traits, Feeding and oviposition preferences of adult cottonwood leaf beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) among Populus clones and leaf age classes, Clonal and leaf age variation in populus phenolic glycosides, implications for host selection by Chrysomela scripta (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), The New World species of Chrysomela L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), Effect of nitrogen fertilization upon the secondary chemistry and nutritional value of quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) Prevention - Use cottonwood clones that have demonstrated tolerance to leaf beetle defoliation.. . (1986), using purified aspen condensed tannins as a standard. Biochem, Responses of deciduous trees to elevated atmospheric CO2: productivity, phytochemistry and insect performance, Phytochemical variation in quaking aspen: effects on gypsy moth susceptibility to nuclear polyhedrosis virus, Effects of different leaf traits on growth rates of insect herbivores on willows, Willow hybridization differentially affects preference and performance of herbivorous beetles, Effects of genotype, nutrient availability, and defoliation on aspen phytochemistry and insect performance, Quaking Aspen. Fusseder Reichardt Your place to find out all about worms, caterpillars, and other (not so) creepy crawlies. 2003, Rehill et al. H B. E Cottonwood leaf beetle. leaves for the large aspen tortrix (Choristoneura conflictana Walker), The biology and ecology of the conttonwood leaf beetle, Chrysomela scripta (Coleaoptera: Chrysomelidae), on tissue cultured hybrid Aigeiros (Populus× euroamericana) subclones in Wisconsin, Cottonwood leaf beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) larval performance on eight Populus clones, Ecological implications of developmental shifts in aspen ( Michx.) 3). Larvae are blackish with two yellow spots on each side. or willow species. (72) Photo: Vera Krischik Kettunen Control Prevention Use cottonwood clones that have demonstrated tolerance to leaf beetle defoliation. Larvae hatched from the eggs … Comments from the editor and three anonymous reviewers significantly improved the manuscript. 1998, Coyle et al. Do not forget that there are more than 200 different carpet beetle species out there. Male andfemale beetle development times did not differ; therefore, these values were pooled in the final statistical analyses. Egg clutches did not hatchsimultaneously, so the replicates were staggered over a 3-d period. Hall Black, tiny, new larvae hatch and feed in groups. Adult fresh and dry weight data yielded identicalstatistical interpretation so only fresh weights are reported. . R. L For example, Burkot and Benjamin (1979) report development times of 13-14 d for larvae growing on hybrid poplars at 28°C, and a field study by Augustin et al. 2 Comments Brian38 a year ago. (1997) conclude that salicortin best explained preferences. 30.6). The cottonwood leaf beetle, Chrysomela scripta Fabricius, is a pest I have written about in the past. Initial and final larval weights were taken when replicates were in a consistent developmentalstage, and thus, replicate weights were staggered over several days. leaf chemistry, Secondary plant compounds in seedling and mature aspen (Populus tremuloides) in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, Short rotation plantations of aspen and balsam poplar on former arable land in Germany: defoliating insects and leaf constituents, Inheritance patterns of phenolics in F1, F2, and back-cross hybrids of willows: implications for herbivore responses to hybrid plants, Evaluation of adult cottonwood leaf beetle, Chrysomela scripta (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), feeding preference for hybrid poplars, Intraspecific variation in aspen phytochemistry: effects on performance of gypsy moths and forest tent caterpillars, Effects of light and nutrient availability on aspen: growth, phytochemistry, and insect performance, Clonal variation in foliar chemistry of aspen: effects on gypsy moths and forest tent caterpillars, Consequences of clonal variation in aspen phytochemistry for late season folivores, Chlorogenic acid as an antiherbivore defence of willows against leaf beetles, Phenolic secondary compounds as determinants of the host plant preferences of the leaf beetle, Agelastica alni, Developmental-changes in resistance to herbivory-implications for individuals and populations, Phenolic glucosides as feeding cues for willow-feeding beetles, Chemical ecology of cottonwood leaf beetle adult feeding preferences on Populus, Clonal variation in foliar chemistry of quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) Donaldson The larvae live in the ground and love eating roots of grasses. H Adults and larvae of the cottonwood leaf beetles feed on foliage of poplars, willows, aspens, and alders, sometimes causing severe damage to the trees. The experiment included five clones each with six replicated potted trees arranged in a randomized latin square design fora total of 30 trees. Adult cottonwood leaf beetles, Chrysomela scripta Fabricius (Coleoptera:Chrysomelidae), are approximately 1/4" long with a black head and thorax.The thorax has reddish margins. Trees in this study were <1 yr old, which likely explains the high levels of phenolic glycosides and low levels of condensed tannins found. Given the highly consistent performance of beetles across the five clones, the absence of significant relationships withplant chemistry is not surprising. K. K 1997) and enhance larval performance (Matsuki and MacLean 1994, Orians et al. Larvae on these cut-down cottonwoods, however, have a surprise for their ant predators. Cary, NC, SAS Institute, JMP version 4.0.4. As adults, and as larvae, these insects depend on the cottonwood for their livelihood. Lindroth These larvae can be serious leaf skeletonizers of poplars, cottonwoods, and willows, although they have a lot of natural enemies, such as lady bugs, ants, spiders, and lacewings. Carpet beetle larvae are usually oval-shaped and can get up to 8 millimeters long, depending on which carpet beetle species it is. Similar studies with willow and Populus have generally failed to find negative impacts of phenolic glycosides on chrysomelid beetles (Bingaman and Hart 1993, Lin et al. The cottonwood borer, scientific name Plectrodera scalator Fabricius, order Coleoptera can be spotted around host plants during the summer. . Total CT also varied among clones, and were generally low, ranging from 3.8 to 6.2% dry weight. L. N beetle may be greatly reduced by ladybird beetles, Coleomegills maculate, which feed on the eggs and pupae (fig. In fact, this study was initiated in response to an "outbreak" of cottonwood leaf beetles among first yearaspen cuttings in an experimental plot at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. The larvae hatch and destroy trees by chewing the inside wood into sawdust and pulp. is the most widely distributed and genetically variable tree species in North America (Perala 1990). Place: Lucius Burch Natural Area- Memphis, TN . Susceptibility to cottonwood leaf beetle feeding damage varies significantly among hybrid poplar clones (Harrell et al. Larvae are black when they first emerge and lighten in color as they age; they can also produce a pungent odor from spots along their back. 1981, Lin et al. 1985, Rowell-Rahier and Pasteels 1986, Rank 1992). Larvae are usually soft-bodied and vary greatly in shape depending on their feeding habits. Japanese beetle identification. . During the third and final stadium of larval development, the 10 larvae (less any mortality) were again counted and weighedcollectively for each of the 30 trees. This experiment involved a small number of parental beetles, and therefore, minimal genetic variation in the beetle population was tested. Tahvanainen Condensed tannins (CT) were quantified using the acidbutanol assay described by Porter et al. The cottonwood leaf beetle is one of the most serious pests of young trees in nurseries and plantations and occasionally causes severe damage in natural stands. Thank you for the ID, Brian! The black rectangular areas on a white to yellow background can identify the body of the cottonwood borer. At the same time as third stadium larvae were weighed, the leaves bagged for chemical analyses were clipped and weighed withoutpetioles. Aspen exhibits marked interclonal variation in both foliar condensed tannin and phenolic glycoside concentrations (Lindroth and Hwang 1996, Lindroth et al. Furthermore, juvenile aspen trees seem to be a high-quality host for the cottonwood leaf beetle. Cottonwood leaf beetle is a native pest that occurs throughout the United States, including Alaska, in areas where cottonwood, poplar and willow exist (Krischiks 2007). Egg clusters, gregariously feeding larvae, and adult beetles are present on the affected foliage. Roininen Schopf The larvae are among the few that feed on roots. E. P Department of Entomology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706. The cottonwood borer (Plectrodera scalator) is a species of longhorn beetle found in the United States east of the Rocky Mountains that feeds on cottonwood trees. Woodworms range from 0.039 - 0.28 inch (1 to 7 millimeters) long. T. L K. M Young larvae feed together and skeletonize leaves. The species will also use willows and poplars, but the cottonwood is the tree it prefers. Colorado, the cottonwood borer is restricted to the southeastern por-tion of the state. Average larval growth rate from second to third stadium was measured over a 4-d period. Large larvae skeletonize the leaves. The larvae are black and have white spots. Larvae (grubs) tunnel around the crown and buttress roots. Leaf beetle larvae (d), like that of the Colorado potato beetle, resemble caterpillars without fleshy abdominal legs. Huang Galleries, at and below the soil line, vary in length and form tunnels up to 8-inches long to 2- to 3-inch diameter oval areas, depending on tree size and infestation site. Larvae on these cut-down cottonwoods, however, have a surprise for their ant predators. . Sign in to suggest organism ID. B. F Young larvae … Hemming Adult longevity was _. Lindroth Pupae are found on branches and leaves. Order: Coleoptera Family: Chrysomelidae Genus and species: Chrysomela scripta Fabricius. Most stag beetles live around rotting logs on which the larvae feed. Chan Chemical—Apply chlorpyrifos for the control of cottonwood leaf beetle adults and larvae. Roininen The only statistically significant model we could fit was for larval growth rate, in which CT concentrationexplained 20% of the overall variation (Fig. Agrell Adult beetles are about 6 mm long and light-yellow with black stripes/spots on the wing covers. The five aspen clones used in this study, Dan 2, PG 1, PG 3, PI 12, and Wau 1, are maintained in a common garden at the Universityof Wisconsin-Madison and were originally collected from field populations occurring throughout southcentral Wisconsin(Hwang and Lindroth 1997, 1998). R. L 1 were numberedsequentially (Robison and Raffa 1997). Bryant Cottonwood borers primarily infest cottonwood, but also occur on poplars and willows. Concentrations of chemical constituents varied among the five aspen clones, although marginally for some variables (Fig. Although tannin levels were quite low in the juvenile trees, larval growth rate was reduced by 30% with increasing condensed tannin concentrations (R2 = 0.209). C. M Conversely, condensed tannin concentrations increase significantly with age (Donaldson et al. This study was prompted by observations of a rapidly growing cottonwood leaf beetle population in a newly established experimental aspen plot at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Cottonwood leaf beetle performance and preference are strongly influenced by age of leaf tissue (Bingaman and Hart 1992). They have a spectacular black pattern with a yellowish white background with two long antennas. Because of aspen's usually high levels of tannins, it is not considered an important host for C. scripta (E. R. Hart, personal communication). Some common examples of leaf beetles are the locust leaf miner, elm leaf beetle, cottonwood leaf beetle, and imported willow leaf beetle. . Rowell-Rahier If cottonwood leaf beetles are deterred by high levels of foliar condensed tannins and attracted to trees with high levelsof phenolic glycosides (Bingaman and Hart 1993, Orians et al. 2), and the pupa is approximately 1 1/2 We thank H. Barnhill for help with beetle rearing and feeding trials and E. R. Hart for supplying information on C. scripta biology and rearing methods. The cottonwood borer larvae have no legs, they are creamy white, and oval shaped. Size differences of young and mature larvae of the cottonwood leaf beetle, Chrysomela scripta Fabricius. Development time (Dev time) was measured from egg hatch to pupation. In this study using juvenile aspen trees, CT levels were quite low (average of 3.8-6.2% leaf dry weight) but still were associated with decreased larval growth rates (Fig. She then deposits eggs in bark. Phenolic glycosides are accumulated at high concentrations in juvenile growth forms, but concentrations decrease sharply with age. Is Dead ‘Worm’ in Man’s Home a Slug or Leech? Orians Werner E. A (1985) similarly concluded that salicin elicited feeding at low to moderate concentrations but slowed growth of Plagiodera at high concentrations. The elytra (wing covers) are yellow withbroken black stripes. They emerge in early spring and feed on unfolding leaves or tender buds and twigs. Leaf samples were ground in a dental amalgamatorand analyzed for total N in a LECO elemental analyzer (St. Joseph, MI). Average LGR from second to third stadium (LGR) was calculated as (Ln final wt. Striped Cucumber Beetle A Hart The four white bumps closest to its head are large scent glands, which secrete a foul-smelling fluid that repels predators. Augustin Adults are yellow-orange with black stripes and spots along the back. The cottonwood borer attacks cottonwood trees and other trees and plants. (102) Photo: Whitney Cranshaw. Lindroth were smaller than larvae reared on fresh poplar foliage. Because leaf shading can affectleaf chemical attributes in aspen (Hemming and Lindroth 1999), at the same time as the larvae were transferred, an additional mesh bag was placed over the next younger leaf (no. Results from performance assays indicate that genetic differences among aspen clones resulted in only marginal differences in larval performance of this specialist leaf beetle. They are very active during the summer months. . Benjamin Introduction . Clancy Cottonwood leaf beetle (Chrysomela scripta) Meet the cottonwood leaf beetle, Chrysomela scripta. Ants, which are common on cottonwood trees, like to eat beetle larvae. Clearly, host specialization among leaf beetles is intricate, involving both qualitative and quantitative aspects of phenolicglycoside distributions among the Salicaceae, but also includes factors such as phenology, morphology, and other plant chemicaltraits. Cottonwood Leaf Beetle Larvae. Control. It has extremely long antennae that grow to lengths beyond its own body. It takes 1-2 years before larvae pupate within larval galleries. The margins of the beetle are red, the head and thorax are black and the abdomen is yellow with black interrupted stripes. Overall, total phenolic glycosides (TPG) were high and ranged from ≈15to 22% of dry leaf weight among clones. The larvae eat the tender insides of the leaves, while the adults eat the outer edges. Cottonwood Borer, (Plectrodera scalator Fabricius) is found in the eastern US, New York. 1998, Wait et al. Clone PI-12 had 20% lower concentrations of TPG compared with the average for theother clones. R. M Burns, B. H Honkala, ed. Being easy to breed and even-tempered, it's hard to go wrong with these little guys. For example, Kearsley and Whitham (1989) found significant increases in Chrysomela confluens performance on, and preference for, juvenile versus mature cottonwood trees, and juvenile versus mature hybrid cottonwood "zones" support strikingly different insect assemblages in this system (Kearsley and Whitham 1989, Waltz and Whitham 1997, Rehill et al. The pupating larvae hang off leaves, stems, fences and basically just about anything.Quite frankly, they are not a pretty sight – they look like something from another planet. These beetles lay their eggs in wood, then the larvae, ... Then, continue reading the rest of this guide for wood-boring beetle treatment options. . 1997), regenerating or juvenile aspen may be an ideal host. They prefer cottonwood, basket willow and other poplars. Bollworm feeding on bolls increases incidence of boll rot. Total PGs were calculated as the sum of salicin, salicortin,tremuloidin, and tremulacin. This leaf feeder has several generations each year, may cause extensive leaf loss, and can consequently reduce stem … Kinney Your welcome Mauna. The cottonwood leaf beetle is one of the most destructive insect pests of poplars and willows in the southeastern United States. Within a day of molting into the secondstadium, the 20 larvae on each replicate were collectively weighed. For adult weight, dark hashed bars represent means for females, and gray bars represent means for males. Adult beetles can be found on and around host plants during the summer. In the summer of 2001 a moderate C. scripta population outbreak occurred in an experimental plot containing ≈1,500 juvenile aspen cuttings. Leaves from each experimental tree were excised, and petioles were inserted into water picksand placed in individual petri dishes (90 mm by 15 mm) with moist filter paper to maintain humidity. Erwin However, only a few of them actually infest our homes. After mating, females lay eggs in groups of 15-75 on the undersides of leaves. 30.6). Do you have borer beetles? Pasteels While cottonwood larvae are not considered pest, the adult cottonwood borer is. Females lay yellow, oval eggs in … Zee According to AgriLIFE Extension, Texas A&M System, “Young trees may be killed when larvae tunnel under the bark (through the xylem tissue) all the way around the base of the tree, girdling it. Cottonwood leaf beetle is a pest both as an adult and as a larva. Additionally, we show that Cyt1Aa suppresses resistance to Cry3Aa greater than 5,000-fold in … Other performance variables, including final larval weights, werebased on the remaining 10 haphazardly selected larvae (see above) minus any mortality. P black and can mature as soon as 15 days, depending on the weather. Call (817) 502-9402 Identifying Cottonwood Borer Beetles: FREE EVALUATIONS. Defoliation caused by cottonwood leaf beetle larvae. K. A They feed exposed on foliage. Several relationships among aspen phytochemical variables were significant. The head is brown to black. There are beneficial insects that will feed on both the cottonwood beetle larvae and eggs. Biorational insecticides spinosad and that conserve beneficial insects can be used to manage cottonwood leaf beetle. Chenault Cottonwood leaf beetles are approximately 1/4 inch long and are pale yellow with black stripes. They were sexedand freeze-dried to measure dry weight. Adult beetles emerge from mid-May through early-July. 2000). Neonate larvae were reared on leaf position numbers 5 or 6, depending on maturity and leaf toughness of replicate trees(i.e., leaf toughness for a given leaf position varied among clones). She then deposits eggs in bark. Damage is caused by small worms feeding primarily on terminal growth and larger worms damaging squares, blooms and bolls. (1997) measured development times of 16-19 d on several Populus species. Hwang . Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. J. R J Recent work in our laboratory has revealed strong ontogenetic shifts in secondary chemistry of aspen foliage. Negative relationships or tradeoffs in the concentrations of condensed tannins and phenolicglycosides have been documented among and within plant taxa, and herbivore distributions seem to be influenced by these trendsin some systems (Orians et al. The cottonwood borer attacks cottonwood trees and other trees and plants. C The larvae … - Ln initial wt.)/no. These scentglands secrete a milky, foul-smelling fluid that repels predators whenthe beetle is disturbed, and can be retracted back into the larva-s bodywhen … However, whether this pattern extends to specialists from different insect orders and whether thephytochemicals important in determining insect distributions are similar or different are unknown. The most apical fully unrolled leaf was designated as position no. Those include lady beetles, lacewings, spiders, and wasps. At all stages, timing for replicates remained staggered over an ≈4-d period (coincidingwith timing of egg hatch). 3-9 were enclosed in the sleeve. 3. J. G 38-3). Genetic-based variation in phytochemical characterswas measured to relate beetle growth and development to aspen leaf water, nitrogen, phenolic glycoside, and condensed tanninconcentrations. Reichenbacker Eggs of the cottonwood leaf beetle, Chrysomela scripta Fabricius. Depending on climate, multiple generations occur (four to six generations per year in the north central region) and localizedpopulation outbreaks are common, particularly in establishing hybrid poplar plantations (Gruppe et al. . . PG, total phenolic glycosides; CT, total condensed tannins. Adult longeviety was similar for both diet-and foliage-reared larave. black and can mature as soon as 15 days, depending on the weather. (1999) concluded that leaf tannins negatively affect performance of chrysomelid beetles. - similar _for both diet-and foliage-reared larvae. Hart Other articles where Cottonwood stag beetle is discussed: stag beetle: mazama (cottonwood stag beetle), which occurs in the southwest. Cultural - Employ sanitation practices in and around nurseries to either destroy the hibernating beetles directly or to expose them to winter temperatures.. Chemical - Apply chlorpyrifos for the control of cottonwood leaf beetIe adults and larvae. We measured average larval growth rate (LGR), total development time for males and females, and fresh and dry adult weightfor males and females. James Solomon, USDA Forest Service, www.forestryimages.org . It is one of the largest insects in North America, with lengths reaching 40 millimetres (1.6 in) and widths, 12 mm (0.47 in). Adult longhorn cottonwood beetles are normally 1 1/4 inch long at times they can be creamy white body or brown to blackheads. It takes 1-2 years before larvae … Wait Most years, I would normally let it pass since it’s usually not a big issue. We report here that a Cyt protein, Cyt1Aa, is also highly toxic to the cottonwood leaf beetle, Chrysomela scripta, with a median lethal concentration of 2.5 ng/mm 2 of leaf surface for second-instar larvae. During outbreaks, beetle larvae can cause severe defoliation, leading to significantly reduced growth and economic losses(Reichenbacker et al. R. A M Cottonwood leaf beetle. Hjalten Fritz The cottonwood borer larvae have no legs, they are creamy white, and oval shaped. Thus, leaf age (as determined by relative position on an indeterminately growing shoot) was consistent among the five aspenclones in bioassays. Recent evidence suggests that aspen undergoes ontogenetic shifts in foliar concentrations of secondary metabolites resulting in decreased phenolic glycoside and increased condensed tannin concentrations as trees age. J Tiny yellow eggs are laid in masses of 15 to 75 on the lower leaf surface. 2004). Platz Adults overwinter under debris beneath host trees. 6) tobe used for chemical analyses. (1999) conclude that among-species distributions of condensed tannins best explain host use patterns for leaf beetles specializingon Salicaceae. These Cottonwood Fort Worth Borer Beetles can be found on either popular, willow, or cottonwood trees during the summer months. 1997). Larvae were placed on the underside of a single leaf and caged in a fine mesh bag. Harrell 1).Water content was highly consistent among clones. It is hard for you to find larvae since that they are embedded deep within the trees root system at the heartwood. The pupae resembles the larvae, being black in color. Of 30 trees to make it an ideal host leaves of willow, poplar, and oval.... Biorational insecticides spinosad and that conserve beneficial insects can be found on either popular,,... 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Latin square design fora total of 30 trees, scientific name: cottonwood borer beetles: FREE EVALUATIONS and!, only a few larvae hanging upside down, getting ready to pupate manuscript! Most preferred to expose them to winter temperatures performance of this specialist beetle! L Romme W. H to feed and disperse freely within the bag until they pupated beetle ), regenerating juvenile. Place: Lucius Burch Natural Area- Memphis, TN bases and roots of grasses 1985 ) concluded... Seen them before from second to third stadium of larval development of this specialist beetle... And willows design fora total of six replicates for each of the cottonwood larvae. Blooms and bolls whereas L. placidus and L. mazama are usually very dark brown or black diet. Fruit and leaves of willow, poplar, with cottonwood being the most destructive insect pests of and. Are beneficial insects that will feed on unfolding leaves or tender buds and twigs final wt that grow lengths. Similarly concluded that salicin elicited feeding at low to moderate concentrations but slowed growth of Plagiodera at high..