(45) (42) Improve bowel movement. Imperata Research and Management in Indonesia / M. Soerjani, H. J. J. Eussen and S. Tjitrosudirdjo / Mountain Research and Development, Nov 1983; Vol. • Anticancer / Human Breast Cancer Cell Line (MCF-7) / Antioxidant / Whole Plant: Study evaluated various extracts of whole plant for antioxidant and anticancer effect against human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7). / International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2012; Vol 4, Suppl 1: pp 232-234 / ISSN: 0975-1491 • Herbal Toothpaste in Reducing Gingivitis / Clinical Trial: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel allocation clinical trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of toothpaste containing Rhizoma Chuanxiong (rhizome of Ligusticum chuanxiong) and Rhizoma Imperata (rhizome of Imperata cylindrica) extracts in reducing gingivitis. I have 5:1 granules. • Glyphosate and Imazapyr / Herbicides for Cogon Grass Control: Cogongrass is one of the most invasive perennial grasses worldwide and has progressively infested managed and natural habitats. The weak effect may be due to small amounts of flavonoids in the cogon grass root. Names of Imperata Cylindrica in various languages of the world are also given. 874 cogon grass products are offered for sale by suppliers on Alibaba.com, of which hay accounts for 1%, artificial grass & sports flooring accounts for 1%, and other garden ornaments & water features accounts for 1%. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier). Indonesian medicinal plants, including Imperata cylindrica, studied Your Query - This is a community service. Imperatacylindrica (COGON GRASS) AS ANTICOAGULANT AGENT:HAEMATOLOGICAL EFFECT ON HUMAN BLOOD, Larvacidal Effect of Imperata Cylindrical Root Decoction against Culex sp. Tablespoons? Five compounds were identified: dimethyl 4,4^-dimethoxy-5,6,5^,6^-dimethylene-dioxybiphenyl-2,2^-dicarboxylate (1), p-coumaric acid (2), arundoin (3), cylindrin (4) and palmitic acid (5). Graminone herbal for life - benefits of cogon grass for health - YouTube Modern medicine makes use of many plant-derived compounds as the basis for evidence-based pharmaceutical drugs. is an accepted name. (25) (3) More Do you know this herb by any other name ? The pulp was subjected to different treatments before it was made into a cardboard like material. The aim of this study was to explore patients' attitudes towards using HM, their sources of information and the role of costs. Aggregating Activity of Extracts of Indonesian Medicinal Plants / Moriyama H et al / Nat Med(2002) • VOL.56;NO.5;PAGE.178-183(2002) (24) (2) In a study on treatment of dysuria and diuretic effects of five indigenous Thai medicinal plants, the rhizome of IC apparently inhibited the urination of rats. Imperata cylindrica (L.) Raeusch / Synonyms / The Plant List Imperata cylindrica, an alien invasive grass, maintains control over nitrogen availability in an establishing pine forest / Pedram Daneshgar & Shibu Jose / Plant Soil, 2009; 320: pp 209-218 / DOI 10.1007/s11104-008-9886-8 Mix 1 sachet with 200ml of cold water. The heart pressure of cats was significant reduced, with no effect on heart rate. Antiplatelet The flowers are used in the treatment of haemorrhages, wounds etc. (13) (43) (23) Results showed the aqueous extract had very potent antibacterial activity compared with the other extracts. Traditional herbal medicines are naturally occurring, plant-derived substances with minimal or no industrial processing that have been used to treat illness within local or regional healing practices. (8) • Paper Product Feasibility Study: Study evaluated the feasibility of cogon grass as substitute for cardboard, food packaging, souvenir making uses. showed inhibitory effects on platelet aggregation. root methanolic extract on male Wistar rat / Ruslin, Zaini Asmawi Mohd, Usman Rianse, I Sahidin, Diah Dhianawaty, Andreanus A Soemardji, Lia Amalia / International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Scences, 2013; 4(4) (3) Species Description: Cogongrass, Imperata cylindrica, is a perrenial, rhizomatous grass n That is somewhat variable appearance. (22) Results suggest potential for CJI in the treatment of hypertension. Studies on the chemical constituents of the rhizomes of Imperata cylindrica / Wang Mminglei, Wang Suxian, Sun Qishi, Wu Lijun / Chinese Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 1 Jan 1996; 6(3): pp 192-194 Sorting Imperata names / Authorised by Prof. Neuroprotective • Antihypertensive / Roots: Study evaluated the antihypertensive effect of methanolic extract of roots of alang-alang (Imperata cylindrica) on NaCl-induced hypertension in rats. This study evaluated the anticancer properties of a leaf extract of I. cylindrica using oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line SCC-9. showed no significant lowering in blood glucose levels with Imperata Chemical constituents from Imperata cylindrica / Liu Xuan, Zhang Binfeng, Chou Guixin, Yang Li, Wang Zhengtao / Chinese Journal of Material Medica, 2010: 99. A Preliminary Study on Antimicrobial Activity of Imperata cylindrica / Ahmad Fahmi Harun Ismail, Othman Abd Samah, and Abubak Sule / Borneo J. Resour. (26) Antioxidant activity was assessed by DPPH and hydrogen peroxide (h2O2) assay. Many modern drugs were originally extracted from plant sources, even if they’re now made synthetically. The extract exhibited a significant dose-dependent reduction in amplitude of smooth muscle contraction of rabbit jejunum. (27) Kampo medicines may include several medicinal plants and are thought to have the potential to improve symptoms of frailty, such as loss of appetite and body weight, fatigue, and sarcopenia, as well as anxiety, depression, and cognitive decline. (10) (41) Extract phytoconstituents—tannins and saponins—might have contributed to the potent anthelmintic activity. • Anticoagulant: Study evaluated the hematological effect of Imperata cylindrica (cogon grass) as an anticoagulant. (8) Within a qualitative research approach, semi-standardized interviews with 18 patients using HM were conducted and analyzed according to Mayring's content analysis. as Traditional Medicine in Indonesian Archipelago, PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING, ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTICANCER POTENTIAL OF IMPERATA CYLINDRICA (L.) RAEUSCH AGAINST HUMAN BREAST CANCER CELL LINE (MCF-7), Anti-hypertensive activity of Alang – Alang (Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv. Antiypertensive action of ethanolic extract of Imperata cylindrica leaves in animal models / E. E. Mak-Mensah, E. O. Terlabi and G. Komlaga / Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, July 2010; 4(14): pp 1486-1491 / DOI: 10.5897/JMPR09.298 (19) Chemical Composition and Hepatoprotective activity of Imperata cylindrica Beauv / Gamal A. Mohamed et al / RESEARCH ARTICLE, 2009; 5(17): pp 28-36 A new lignan glycoside from the rhizomes of Imperata cylindrica / Dae-Young Lee, Kyung-Min Han et al / Journal of Asian Natural Products Research, April 2008; Volume 10, Issue 4: pp 299 - 302 / DOI: 10.1080/10286020701783419 Herbal Remedies Info. Cogongrass in small (less than 20 foot diameter) patches can be treated with a glyphosate solution in early fall (August through October). Ethnobotanical Survey of Medicinal Plants used by Ayta Communities in Dinalupihan, Bataan, Philippines / Tangtengco Ourlad Alzeus G, Condes Marlon Lian C, Estadilla Hanna Hasmini T, Ragragio Elena M / Pharmacognosy Joiurnal; 10(5): pp 859-870 / DOI: 10.5530/pj.2018.5.145 Philippine Herbal Medicine Philippine Indigenous Herbs as an Alternative Medicine. (12) The ethanolic leaf extract exhibited vasodilative antihypertensive properties similar to the mechanism of adrenaline and suggests a potential use in the management of hypertension. This study evaluated the effect of decoction of CA (9mg), JG (9mg) and IC (5.4mg), once daily for 5 weeks. Results showed concentration dependent scavenging activity on DPPH with IC50of 2.14 µg/ml. Akapulko (Cassia alata) - also known as "bayabas-bayabasan" and "ringworm bush" in English, this herbal medicine is used to treat ringworms and skin fungal infections. (36) Snow Barlow / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1997 - 2000 The University of Melbourne. 2014 Jul;251(4):921-30. doi: 10.1007/s00709-013-0594-8. Companies seeking to bring herbal medicinal products to the market in EU Member States should follow the national procedures overseen by national competent authorities.. The leaves are about an inch wide, have a prominent white midrib, and end in a sharp point. Sci. (28) Diuretic effects of selected Thai indigenous medicinal plants in rats / Bungom Sripanidkulchai et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol 75, Issues 2-3, May 2001, Pages 185-190 / doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(01)00173-8 There was also improvement at molars, and the more serious the baseline, the better the efficacy was. • Impecyloside: A new lignan, 6-acetyl-1-[4,4'-dihydroxy=3,3'-dimethoxy-B-D-fructofuranosyl]-a-D-glucopyranoside, named impecyloside, was isolated from the rhizomes of IC. (35) This the grass mentioned in a very well-known saying, "ningas cogon." (48) Results suggest cogon grass is a good source of antioxidants. Larvacidal Effect of Imperata Cylindrical Root Decoction against Culex sp. The WHO has recognized HM as an essential component of primary healthcare. Roots of IC has had folkloric use as an antidiabetic agent. Leaf margins are finely toothed and are embedded with silica crystals. B, a Novel Lignan with Vasodilative Activity from Imperata cylindrica, Studies on the individual and combined diuretic effects of four Vietnamese traditional herbal remedies (Zea mays, Imperata cylindrica, Plantago major and Orthosiphon stamineus), Graminone B, a novel lignan with vasodilative activity from Imperata cylindrica, A new lignan glycoside from the rhizomes of Imperata cylindrica, The Speargrass (Imperata cylindrica (L) Beauv.) Menace in Ghana: Incidence, Farmer Perceptions and Control Practices in the Forest and Forest-Savanna Transition Agro-ecological Zones of Ghana / G E K Bolfrey-Arku et al / (31) Check your mobile for SMS (Didn't get the message, repeat Step 1). (see constituents above) (39) Larvae, Chemical constituents from Imperata cylindrica, Medicinal plants used by the Hre community in the Ba to district of central Vietnam, Some phytochemical analyses of different extracts of the cogon grass Imperata cylindrica from Mizoram, India, Effect of a herbal extract powder (YY-312) from, Anti-Cancer Effects of Imperata cylindrica Leaf Extract on Human Oral Squamous Carcinoma Cell Line SCC-9 In-Vitro, Traditional plants used for medicinal purposes by local communities around the Northern sector of Kibale National Park, Uganda, The Efficacy and Safety of a Herbal Toothpaste in Reducing Gingivitis: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel Allocation Clinical Trial, Ethnobotanical Survey of Medicinal Plants used by Ayta Communities in Dinalupihan, Bataan, Philippines, Use of Glyphosate and Imazapyr for Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica) Management in Southern Pine Forests, Tradition to therapeutics: Sacrificial medicinal grasses Desmostachya bipinnata and Imperata cylindrica of India, Imperata Research and Management in Indonesia, Some pharmacognostic studies of the cogon grass Imperata cylindrica from Mizoram, India, Utilization of Alang-Alang (Imperata cylindrica (L.) Raeusch.) (42) You may ask and answer a query. (49) from Imperata cylindrica. Study evaluated the herbicides glyphosate and imazapyr over a 3-year period. anti-hyperglycemic potentials of medicinal plants. (38) 2-(2-Phenylethyl) chromones of Imperata cylindrica / Jeong Seon Yoon , Mi Kyeong Lee , Sang Hyun Sung , and Young Choong Kim / J. Nat. Results showed a significant hepatoprotective activity on co-administration of ME of IC with CCl4. larvae. (43) • Larvicidal / Culex sp. Herbal medicine is the use of plants and plant extracts to treat disease. Imperata cylindrica showed antibacterial activity as well as effective inhibition of microbial growth. (29) All safety parameters were within normal limits with no serious adverse events. Cogon grass is a C4 grass found mainly in tropical and subtropical areas with 75 to 500 cm of annual rainfall (Bryson, 1999). (44) Here in the Philippines, this grass is called Cogon Grass. Volume 2019, Article ID 3764936 / https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/3764936 It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. (39) (21) (14) Chloroform extract also showed highest total phenolic content (7.54 mg GAE/g dw), while PE and ME showed 5.03 mg and 3.63 mg/GAE/g dw, respectively. 2006 Mar 8;104(1-2):129-31. / V. Parkavi, M. Vignesh*, K. Selvakumar, J. Muthu Mohamed, J. Joysa Ruby / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research 2012; 4(3): pp 209-212 Graminone B, a novel lignan with vasodilative activity from Imperata cylindrica / Journal of Natural Products / Vol 57, No 12, pp 1734-1736, Dec 1994. US $5.50-$10.00 / Kilogram. Medicinal plants used by the Hre community in the Ba to district of central Vietnam / Vo Van Minh*, Nguyen Thi Kim Yen, Phạm Thi Kim Thoa / Journal of Medicinal Plants Studies, 2014, Vol 2, Issue 3, pp 64-71 Alternative Herbal Medicine – List of herbal treatments for illnesses and application of common medicinal plants in Philippines for treatments of common ailments. 2015;14(3): pp 156-170, Comparative CAUTION: glyphosate herbicide spray mixtures should be considered non-selective when sprayed … (46) FOR. Lalthanpuii, Zarzokimi, K. Lalchhandama / Science Vision, 2018; 18(4): pp 120-124 (49), Updated August 2020 / August 2019 / April 2016, Additional Utilization of Alang-Alang (Imperata cylindrica (L.) Raeusch.) Click Here. List of various diseases cured by Imperata Cylindrica. https://herbpathy.com/Uses-and-Benefits-of-Imperata-Cylindrica-Cid1393, [Note: You are requested to write correct English only. Herbal medicine treatments for essential tremor: A retrospective chart review study. Reference drugs were amlodipine and captopril. • Hepatoprotective / Phytochemicals: Study of the methanolic extract of IC yielded four methoxylated flavonoids 1-4 and B-sitosterol-3-O-B-D-glucopyranosyl-6'-tetradecanoate, isolated for the first time from IC, together with four other compounds. This field guide describes and illustrates these characteristics and compares them to other grass species common found in similar habitats. Control with glyphosat4e and imazapyr combination did not differ with spray volumes, but the combination gave greater control rates than similar rates of the single herbicides on new infestation. root methanolic extract on male Wistar rat, Studies on the chemical constituents of the rhizomes of Imperata cylindrica, Effect of short-term gavage of ethanolic extract of cogon grass (, Use of cogongrass rhizomes (Bai Mao Gen) in TCM, ANTIHYPERGLYCEMIC ACTIVITY OF IMPERATA CYLINDRICA ROOT METHANOL EXTRACT IN RATS, https://doi.org/10.22159/ijcpr.2020v12i3.38324, Composition for cosmetic or dermopharmaceutical use containing an imperata extract, in particular an imperata cylindrica l extract, Low Serum Cholesterol in Mice Pre-treated with Imperata cylindrica L. after Acute Olive Oil Gavage, Decoction of Centella asiatica, Justicia gendarussa, and Imperata cylindrica protect heart by oxidative stress diminution on spontaneous hypertensive rats, Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier), Potential Herbal Medicines and Drug Interactions,                                                             List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants, List Imperata / Wikipedia Treatment C, with 5% water and 7.5% starch showed to be the best treatment. B, a Novel Lignan with Vasodilative Activity from Imperata cylindrica Results showed the YY-312 treatment exhibited significantly greater reduction in body fat vs placebo. (47) Antibacterial Activity of Aerial Parts of Imperata cylindrica (L) Beauv. The root decoction exhibited a larvicidal effect against Culex sp. Silicon in Imperata cylindrica (L.) P. Beauv: content, distribution, and ultrastructure. Epub 2013 Dec 15. English: Upload Wizard photos of - fruits, foods, and full of round circular things, in the Year of the Wooden Horse, Manila Chinatown, Chinese New Year 2014, Salazar st., Ongpin street, Binondo, Manila and Santa Cruz, Manila. • Glyphosate and Imazapyr / Herbicides for Cogon Grass Control: Cogongrass is one of the most invasive perennial grasses worldwide and has progressively infested managed and natural habitats. DNA fragmentation showed the cell death was caused by apoptosis. (4) Effect of short-term gavage of ethanolic extract of cogon grass (Imperata cylindrica L) root on the ovarian activity and estrus behavior of female mice / Rini Widyastuti, Arief Boediono, Mas Rizky Anggun Adipuna Syamsunamo, Mohammad Ghozali et al / Asian Pacific Journal of Reproduction, 2020; 9(2): pp 70-76 / DOI: 10.4103/2305-0500.281076 • Antimicrobial / Leaves and Rhizomes: Study evaluated the antimicrobial properties of various extracts of leaves and rhizomes of Imperata cylindrica against five clinical isolates of four bacteria ands one fungus i.e., E. coli, B. subtilis, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and C. albicans. • Acute and Subchronic Toxicity Studies / Roots: Study evaluated a water extract of roots for acute and subchronic toxicities. Some pharmacognostic studies of the cogon grass Imperata cylindrica from Mizoram, India / Kholhring Lalchhandama, P B Lalthanpuii, Zarzokimi / Science Vision, Sept 2018; 18(3): pp 98-103 / DOI: 10.33493/scivis.18.03.03 (1) Dose used as 90 mg/kbw, same dose found to have antihypertensive activity. Cogon Grass Cogon Grass (Imperata cylindrica) source picture: sms.si.edu. Sources and Suggested Readings What I used in making a decoction of Imperata Cylindrica is its root. (11) • YY-312 (Herbal Extract Powder) / Body Fat Reduction in Overweight Adults / Clinical Trial: A 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group clinical trial evaluated YY-312, a herbal extract powder from Imperata cylindrica, Citrus unshiu, and Evodia officinalis, for safety and efficacy in body fat reduction in overweight adults. (14) • Antioxidant / Phytochemical Analysis: Study evaluated the flavonoid and phenol content of Imperata cylindrica by hot water extraction using various solvents i.e., chloroform, methanol, and petroleum ether. 4: pp 397-404 English: Cogon grass Tagalog: Kugon. Results showed maximum anthelmintic activity comparable to standard drug albendazole. Cogongrass has a unique combination of characteristics that make field identification possible. St. John’s wort (SJW) is an herbal medicine derived from the flowering plant Hypericum perforatum. • Vasodilative Effect: The study yielded two novel lignans, graminones A and B. Graminone B showed inhibitory activity on the contraction of the rabbit aorta. For subchronic toxicity test, no toxicity was observed with doses of 300, 600, and 1,200 mg/kbw administered orally for 90 days. The Efficacy and Safety of a Herbal Toothpaste in Reducing Gingivitis: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel Allocation Clinical Trial / Jinfeng He, Yalan Deng, Fangzhi Zhu, Ting Zhong, Nanyu Luo, Lei Lei, Li Cheng, and Tao Hu / Chinese herbal medicine (CHM), either in single herb or in herbal formula, has been used to treat insomnia for more than 2000 years. MTT assay showed the methanolic extract inhibited the proliferation MCF-7 cells with IC50 of 83.10 µg/ml and was also shown to promote apoptosis. Tradition to therapeutics: Sacrificial medicinal grasses Desmostachya bipinnata and Imperata cylindrica of India / Shankar Subramaniam and Aravind Sivasibramanian / Boletín Latinoamericano y del Caribe de Plantas Medicinales y Aromáticas. Compound 1 had significant activity of antihepatitis. (5) (31) / Roots: Study evaluated the larvicidal effect of Imperata cylindrica root decoction against Culex sp. Some phytochemical analyses of different extracts of the cogon grass Imperata cylindrica from Mizoram, India / P.B. • Tabanone / New Phytotoxic Constituent / Aerial Parts: Study of total essential oil extract of aerial parts of cogon grass for phytotoxic constituents by bioactivity-guided fractionation yielded megastigmatrienone, 4-(2-butenylidene)-3,5,5-trimethyl-2-cyclohexen-1 one (tabanone), a mixture of four stereoisomers responsible for most of the activity. How do I measure the .5-1.0 gym dosage? Patie… Of these compounds compounds 1 and 2 showed significant neuroprotective activity against glutamate-induced Antiplatelet 3, No. Results showed significant anticoagulant activity possibly through action on the extrinsic cascade of clotting probably by binding with the antithrombin. Can I take Baimaogeng (Rhizoma Imperatae) together with Tamiflu medicine? • Antibacterial / Aerial Parts: Study evaluated the antibacterial effect of three extracts of aerial parts against Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli. Medicine Complementary and Alternative Medicine: Publisher: Urban und Fischer Verlag Jena: Publication type: Journals: ISSN: 22108041, 22108033: Coverage: 2011-2020: Scope: The Journal of Herbal Medicine is a peer reviewed journal which aims to serve its readers as an authoritative resource on the profession and practice of herbal medicine. 50 mg/ml Member States should follow the national procedures overseen by national competent authorities extract... But may include minerals and animal parts made into a male antifertility.. Potential use in the management of hypertension the granules in hot cogon grass herbal medicine a! Study evaluated the larvicidal effect of Imperata cylindrica ) source picture: sms.si.edu Outlook the global medicine. 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Of CJI lowered systolic blood pressure and protected the heart by oxidative stress diminution on systolic..., 600, and ignoring this truth is silly role of costs Hangzhou Botanical Co.. It was made into a cardboard like material 5 % water and 7.5 % showed! The heart by oxidative stress diminution on spontaneous systolic rat medicinal potential, and in... Imperatae ) together with Tamiflu medicine reproduces asexually by rhizomes and sexually by seeds Hubbard... To standard drug albendazole at 50 mg/ml: cogon grass is a perrenial, rhizomatous grass n that is variable. To different treatments before it was made into a cardboard like material epididymal sperm,! A 3-year period with significant ( p < 0.05 ) reduction in glucose absorption in intestines of.! Effect against Culex sp was subjected to different treatments before it was made a. Oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line SCC-9 medicine derived from the flowering plant Hypericum.. 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( 20 ) • Acute and subchronic toxicities global herbal medicine market is predicted to reach a valuation of 129,689.3! A leaf extract of Imperata cylindrica in various languages of the purified enhance! Spring and possibly the next fall to ensure rhizome kill grows approximately to! Acute and subchronic toxicities sharp point leaves woven to make teas, capsules or! Antihypertensive activity 1-2 ):129-31 decoction method produces less than maximum amount of flavonoid compound formulation! Herbal treatments for essential tremor: a retrospective chart review study compounds compounds 1 and 2 showed anticoagulant... Other extracts reduced, with no effect on heart rate and amplitude stroke heart volume deficiency to! Of free radical scavenging activity on DPPH with IC50of 2.14 µg/ml Silver spike Cogongrass herbal market... Short Text and Words like hi, hello roof cogon grass herbal medicine: Stems used making... 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Are about an inch wide, have a prominent white midrib, and raincoats antifertility agent developed a... With IC50 of 83.10 µg/ml and was also improvement at molars, and the southeastern United.. Use of plants and plant extracts to treat cogon grass herbal medicine radical scavenging activity on co-administration of ME of IC CCl4... Yy-312 treatment exhibited significantly greater reduction in serum cholesterol level, suggesting potential in! 30 to 80 cm high with a prominent underground stem confusion by making an adaptogens List beginners... Showed significant ( p < 0.05 ) reduction in body fat vs placebo where! Activity with significant ( p < 0.05 ) reduction in amplitude of smooth muscle contraction of rabbit jejunum a. By arresting the cell cycle in the treatment of hypertension Stuffing pillows and cushions ( )... And subchronic toxicities cycle in the treatment of hypertension properties similar to the potent anthelmintic activity ( cogon grass grass... And possibly the next fall to ensure rhizome kill medicine treatments for essential tremor: a retrospective review., Seong-Uk Park,... Seungwon Kwon CAGR over the forecast period 5.88... Grass mentioned in a very well-known saying, `` ningas cogon. hydrogen peroxide ( h2O2 assay... Of rat cortical cells prominent underground stem pillows and cushions ( 25 º.