The fiber orientation suggests a primary role in forelimb retraction. An inverse dynamic solution is used to compute net joint moments and net joint powers (Colborne et al., 1997a,b). It supports the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint during the stance phase, which is critical to the function of the equine limb. This chapter describes the structure of the forelimb musculature, the movements of the forelimb and the role of specific muscle groups in causing and controlling those movements. The deep pectoral (pectoralis ascendens) is a large, powerful muscle with long fibers. As the tendons stretch, they store elastic energy, which is released later in the stance phase when the limb is unloaded. The bulk of the musculature is in the proximal limb, which reduces the moment of inertia of the limb as a whole. It is a broad flat muscle covered medially and laterally by broad aponeurotic sheets. The longitudinal fibers likely contribute to forelimb protraction, retraction and stabilization. One of the most obvious articular changes is extension of the MCP joint, the magnitude of which can be predicted from vertical ground reaction force (McGuigan & Wilson, 2003). By comparison, muscles in the distal limb are smaller and less powerful with short, pennate fibers that are not capable of a large amount of shortening but are well suited to contract isometrically. In general, the limb spring is stiffer in larger animals but, within an individual, stiffness of the limb spring is nearly independent of speed. Locomotor muscles account for about 42% of the horse’s body mass (Gunn, 1978) with the large, powerful muscles concentrated in the proximal limb, while the distal forelimb makes use of long, elastic tendons to reduce the metabolic cost of locomotion. Terminology From Stubbs and Clayton (2008) with permission of Sport Horse Publications. The "funny bone" (technically the olecranon process) is the backwards-pointing projection of the ulna. The input for the model comprises kinematic and force data that are synchronized in time and space, together with segment morphometric data (, Forelimb segmental masses, densities, reference lines for division of segments (see Fig. Notice, too, how the form of the bones contributes to the function of the forelimb in each species. Muscles in the proximal forelimb tend to be large and powerful with long fibers arranged parallel to the muscle belly to move the joints through a large range of motion. The ground reaction force (GRF) vector is usually resolved into vertical, longitudinal and transverse components to facilitate interpretation of its effects. 6.4). Left: markers placed over centers of joint rotation with limb segments being represented by lines joining the markers. The CDE tendon has a stiffer matrix than the SDF tendon, which may be due to the smaller fibril diameters (Birch, 2007). Fig 6.1 Two methods of measuring joint angles of the forelimbs with the measured angles being represented by black arcs. The rhomboideus lies underneath the trapezius and ties the scapula into the sides of the spinous processes of the thoracic vertebrae and the nuchal ligament. Mechanism of Restoration of Forelimb Motor Function after Cervical Spinal Cord Hemisection in Rats: Electrophysiological Verification So the aim of this study was to elucidate the gross anatomical outline of forelimb bones of Asian elephant and to contribute in the field of radiological and forensic studies. From the front, a plumb-line dropped from the point of shoulder should bisect the limb and hoof. There is no lateral or rotational movement. Tendons can recoil elastically much faster than muscles shorten, which is beneficial in situations where rapid movement is required. In a galloping horse, the biceps tendon has been estimated to release 243 J in 0.11 s, which would require the power output of 50 kg of non-elastic muscle (Wilson & Watson, 2003). Locomotor muscles account for about 42% of the horse’s body mass (Gunn, 1978) with the large, powerful muscles concentrated in the proximal limb, while the distal forelimb makes use of long, elastic tendons to reduce the metabolic cost of locomotion. In general, these are large muscles with long fibers arranged parallel with the long axis of the muscle belly (Table 6.2) that insert on the bones via short tendons or aponeurotic sheets (Payne et al., 2004). In dogs, it has been suggested that the primary function of serratus ventralis cervicis is to stabilize the position of the fulcrum about which the forelimb rotates in a craniocaudal direction during active retraction of the forelimb, thus ensuring that the GRF vector passes close to the center of scapular rotation (Carrier et al., 2006). Label the bones in each animal forelimb in Model 2. Evaluation of the geometry and architecture of the musculotendinous units is helpful in understanding whether their function is to produce rapid movements or generate large forces to stabilize the joints. Supraspinatus and infraspinatus are active during early and midstance in walk, trot and canter (Aoki et al., 1984; Robert et al., 1998), when the primary action of supraspinatus appears to be stabilization of the shoulder joint. The trapezius muscle is a flattened triangular sheet of superficial muscle consisting of long muscle fibres which run more or less parallel to its long axis. (1995a) How the horse moves: significance of graphical representations of equine forelimb kinematics. Short, highly pennated fibers in combination with a long, elastic tendon are characteristic of muscles involved in elastic energy storage and release. Elbow Joint Forelimb segmental masses, densities, reference lines for division of segments (see Fig. Generally, the forelimb consists of three or four major segments, as observed in a human arm that has the upper arm, the forearm, and the hand as the three segments. Later in the swing phase, the net joint moment moves to the caudal side of the carpus (Lanovaz et al., 1999), with flexor carpi radialis controlling carpal extension and retracting the distal limb in preparation for ground contact. Trapezius (Fig. With an increase in galloping speed, the DDF muscle and its associated tendon assume a greater role in support of the MCP joint, thus relieving some stress on the SDF tendon. The fiber direction suggests a primary role in forelimb protraction. Tendons can recoil elastically much faster than muscles shorten, which is beneficial in situations where rapid movement is required. In general, the limb spring is stiffer in larger animals but, within an individual, stiffness of the limb spring is nearly independent of speed. In practice, depending on the individual horse’s conformation, the angles tend to be more upright than this, The angle of the hoof wall at the toe should be the same as at the heel. The stride starts and ends with consecutive occurrences of the same event, which is often a specific footfall. This fiber composition is well suited for its support role as part of the stay apparatus (Swanstrom et al., 2005), and for attenuating high-frequency forces associated with impact (Wilson et al., 2001). The measurement from the withers to the point of the elbow should be about the same as from the point of the elbow to the ground, ensuring adequate depth of chest. Right: measurement of the angle by which the distal segment differs from alignment with the proximal segment; deviation toward the flexor aspect is negative (−), deviation toward the extensor aspect is positive (+). The joint is designed to absorb shock. It has been speculated that reduction in the muscular function of the equine interosseus began about 15 million years ago, when ancestral horses were increasing in size and moving to the grasslands where efficient overground locomotion was required (Camp & Smith, 1942). 6.3, Table 6.2) are large with relatively long fibers that suggest a primary role in adducting the forelimb (Payne et al., 2004). This tendon plays an important role in elastic energy storage, having the potential to store 277–591 J. J. Thus parallel fibers impart the largest range of motion and the most rapid shortening velocities. It supports the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint during the stance phase, which is critical to the function of the equine limb. Location along the x-axis is measured first from the proximal reference marker toward the distal reference marker, then shifted along the y-axis. The upper jaw of the human, and the upper beak of the bird is composed of a bone … If this is difficult to visualise, it may be easier to locate the small projection or tuber on the scapula that lies a little above the mid point. The tree shrew skeleton closely resembles that of early mammals and represents the ancestral forelimb skeleton. 1998, 2000a, b). This fiber composition is well suited for its support role as part of the stay apparatus (Swanstrom et al., 2005), and for attenuating high-frequency forces associated with impact (Wilson et al., 2001). These characteristics are associated with muscles that act as prime movers. The joints of the horse’s forelimb from the elbow distally are more or less constrained to move in a sagittal plane with relatively small amounts of abduction/adduction and internal/external rotation (Thompson et al., 1992; Degueurce et al., 1996). The shortness of the muscle fibers (49 mm) relative to the length of the aponeurosis (500 mm) offers limited ability for muscular contraction to compensate for stretching of the aponeurosis, which implies that this muscle would not be effective in moving or positioning the limb. The actions of triceps are to extend the elbow, to retract and extend the distal forelimb and, perhaps, to extend the limb when it is being used to raise the forehand. The DDF is also compartmentalized morphologically into regions with different lengths of fibers in the range 5–117 mm (Hagen et al., 2002; Brown et al., 2003; Zarucco et al., 2004). Compared with the primary limb protractors, brachiocephalicus and omotransversarius, latissimus dorsi develops similar amounts of force but less than half as much power. The concept of the forelimb acting as a spring implies that changes in joint angles as the limb accepts weight result in shortening of the bony column and stretching of the musculotendinous units. Animals are lame, febrile, inappetent, and have palpable long bone pain. The actions of triceps are to extend the elbow, to retract and extend the distal forelimb and, perhaps, to extend the limb when it is being used to raise the forehand. As a consequence of this translational motion, the instantaneous center of rotation of the scapulothoracic joint changes throughout the stride. The absence of a clavicle allows the scapula more freedom to rotate and translate relative to the ribcage, which may contribute to an increase in stride length. Forelimb segmental masses, densities, reference lines for division of segments (see Fig. () In human, the hand is used for grasping; it is associated with opposable thumb. For example, joint angles may be measured between the proximal and distal segments on the anatomical flexor aspect or as the angle by which the distal segment deviates from alignment with the proximal segment, or some combination of these methods (Fig. The orientation of the vertical fibers suggests that their function is to hold the proximal scapula against the trunk (preventing winging of the scapula) by opposing the action of the pectoral muscles that adduct the distal scapula and humerus. Data are mean ± SD for 12 forelimbs of 6 Warmblood horses. The intrinsic muscles of the forelimb are characterized by being smaller in volume than the extrinsic musculature with short, highly pennate fibers and long tendons relative to muscle length. Back et al. The fatigue resistant slow-twitch fibers arranged in series with the tendons of biceps brachii and lacertus fibrosus are part of the passive stay apparatus of the forelimb. The shoulder movement is mainly flexion and extension, with some rotation, abduction and adduction. (Note that ulnaris lateralis represents the extensor carpi ulnaris but, since its distal attachment is to the accessory carpal bone in horses, it acts as a carpal flexor rather than a carpal extensor. Architectural properties of the muscles of the equine antebrachium Briefly, in a two-dimensional link segment model, each segment is represented as a solid bar and the location of its center of mass is known relative to the coordinates that define the segment. Left: measurement of the angle between the proximal and distal segments on the anatomical flexor aspect. Data are mean ± SD for 12 forelimbs of 6 Warmblood horses. In the horse’s forelimb, the biceps tendon is stretched by forward movement of the trunk and the changing orientation of the ground reaction force vector relative to the shoulder and elbow joints during the stance phase. *Position of center of mass is expressed along the x-axis (longitudinal, positive distally from the more proximal marker), then along the y-axis (perpendicular to x-axis, positive cranially). 6.2, Table 6.1). This muscle is more variable in its mass than the other extrinsic muscles, which may reflect adaptation in response to the amount and type of training. Thus, fibers with a pennation angle of 40° transmit only 77% of the force generated by the muscle fiber to the tendon. Thus, fibers with a pennation angle of 40° transmit only 77% of the force generated by the muscle fiber to the tendon. These muscles show electromyographic activity in late swing and early stance (Jansen et al., 1992) indicating a possible role in stabilizing the carpus through the impact phase. et al. The orientation of the vertical fibers suggests that their function is to hold the proximal scapula against the trunk (preventing winging of the scapula) by opposing the action of the pectoral muscles that adduct the distal scapula and humerus. GRF data can be combined with kinematic data using a link segment model to calculate internal forces within the limb that cannot be measured directly (see Chapter 19 for details). In the walking horse, the shoulder acts primarily as an energy damper, with a large burst of energy absorption on its extensor (cranial) aspect in midstance (Clayton et al., 2000a), which is likely due to eccentric action of biceps brachii controlling extension of the shoulder. 6.1). These characteristics are associated with muscles that act as prime movers. In a catapult, a large force is applied to store energy, which is then released rapidly to accelerate a small mass. The superficial digital flexor (SDF) muscle has a much smaller volume than the DDF muscle. It is active in late swing and early stance (Tokuriki et al., 1989; Preedy, 1998; Robert et al., 1998), with activity in the long head preceding activity in the lateral head. About this Quiz. Common faults include the following: The fetlock joints should be well defined and bony rather than puffy. 6.3, Table 6.2) is a moderately large and powerful muscle with fairly long fibers (Payne et al., 2004). In small, non-cursorial mammals, the forelimb is attached to the trunk via a shoulder girdle, in which the clavicle articulates with the sternum and scapula, imposing some constraints on forelimb motion. The forearm should be long and well muscled, and the cannon bone should be short with adequate flat bone. Serratus ventralis thoracis (Fig. This tendon plays an important role in elastic energy storage, having the potential to store 277–591 J. Forelimb function Skin markers used to locate the centers of mass of the forelimb segments in Table 6.1, which are separated according to the incision lines shown in red. Due to their proximity to the horse’s center of mass, the forelimbs carry more weight (57–58%) than the hind limbs (42–43%) and have proportionately higher vertical forces and impulses. The length and angulation of the scapula (ideally 45°) determine the slope of the horse’s shoulder and the length of stride. The horse should have a good sloping shoulder so that there is ‘plenty in front of the rider’ and the saddle sits in a comfortable position. At the elbow there are bursts of energy generation on the extensor aspect in early stance, which is thought to be due to concentric action of triceps brachii, and on the flexor aspect in late stance, which coincides with electrical activity in biceps brachii (Tokuriki et al., 1989). The third interosseous muscle (suspensory ligament) acts as an energy-storing tendon and has an even lower modulus of elasticity than the SDF tendon (Birch, 2007). Many animals have common bones in the forelimbs, such as the humerus in the upper segment, the radius and the ulna in the lower section, and the phalanges that refer to the bones in the paws or hooves. The basic components are the humerus (h), ulna (u), radius (n), carpals (c), metacarpals (m), and phalanges (p) in the five digits Label the corresponding forelimb bones of … It is active through most of the stance phase when it may assist in moving the trunk forward over the grounded limb. This work is very difficult and time consuming, but it can help biologists determine the evolution-ary ancestry of a species. Table 6.2 This is in contrast to brachialis, which acts as an elbow flexor in early swing (Tokuriki et al., 1989) and contributes to the flexor moment at the elbow at this time in walk (Clayton et al., 2000a, b) and trot (Lanovaz et al., 1999). When the DDF muscle becomes fatigued, the SDF tendon is over-loaded and predisposed to strain injury (, Sagittal plane analysis of forelimb kinematics and kinetics. During locomotion at walk, trot and canter, biceps brachii is active in early and midstance (Tokuriki et al., 1989). Serratus ventralis cervicis (Fig. The input for the model comprises kinematic and force data that are synchronized in time and space, together with segment morphometric data (Fig. Equine Vet. The trot is the most important gait for evaluation of the quality of a horse’s movement and for detection of lameness. Figure 6. In the swing phase, forelimb protraction is driven by the elbow flexors, which generate a flexor moment in early swing, and retraction is driven by the elbow extensors, which generate an extensor moment in late swing (Lanovaz et al., 1999). In practice, as long as the shoulder is flat and long enough to ensure a good stride length, it does not matter if it is a little upright. Loading during locomotion is easily resisted by the maximal isometric force-generating capacity of serratus ventralis thoracis, which is estimated to exceed 17 kN. In the equine distal limb, the suspensory ligament and SDF tendon are primarily responsible for storing and releasing elastic energy. 6.3) and rhomboideus are the smallest extrinsic muscles of the forelimb and have medium-length fibers (Table 6.2) (Payne et al., 2004). (human, dog, bird, whale) Some mammalian species have only the scapula. Typical marker configurations involve either placing a marker over the center of rotation of each joint or aligning two markers along the long axis of each segment (Fig. The fatigue resistant slow-twitch fibers arranged in series with the tendons of biceps brachii and lacertus fibrosus are part of the passive stay apparatus of the forelimb. The pectoral muscles (Fig. Subclavius (Table 6.2) has long fibers (519 mm) that allow generation of large forces to assist in adduction and retraction of the forelimb or stabilization of the scapula (Payne et al., 2004). Serratus ventralis thoracis is the primary muscular component of the thoracic sling, which suspends the trunk between the forelimbs and controls the position of the thorax and withers relative to the scapulae when the forelimbs are weight-bearing. Electromyographic activity in extensor carpi radialis is concentrated at the beginning of swing (Jansen et al., 1992) when the elbow and carpus are flexing. Since the DDF muscle has a relatively high percentage of fast-twitch fibers, it is susceptible to fatigue during exercise (Hermanson & Cobb, 1992; Butcher et al., 2007). Serratus ventralis thoracis is the primary muscular component of the thoracic sling, which suspends the trunk between the forelimbs and controls the position of the thorax and withers relative to the scapulae when the forelimbs are weight-bearing. Jun 8, 2016 | Posted by admin in EQUINE MEDICINE | Comments Off on Forelimb function, Hilary M. Clayton, Henry Chateau and Willem Back. The functions of the DDF are to flex the digital joints during the swing phase and to generate a propulsive force during the second half of stance. Both of these muscles insert on the accessory carpal bone, which increases their moment arm and facilitates their ability to stabilize the carpus during stance. Fig. Table 6.3 Skin displacement relative to the underlying bones is always a concern when kinematic studies are based on skin-fixed markers. Forelimb bones is a crossword puzzle clue. Muscles in the proximal forelimb tend to be large and powerful with long fibers arranged parallel to the muscle belly to move the joints through a large range of motion. In the equine forelimb, artifacts due to skin displacement may be small enough to be negligible on the antebrachial and metacarpal segments, but are large enough to alter sagittal plane kinematics significantly on the scapular, brachial, and pastern segments. 6.1). Fig 6.3 Extrinsic muscles of the forelimb. The exception is serratus ventralis thoracis, which has short, pennate fibers and is encased in a strong aponeurotic sheath. humeri: upper arm bone. 6.3, Table 6.2) is the largest extrinsic muscle of the forelimb both in mass and volume and has the shortest mean fiber length. The function of a human forelimb is to help with balance, reach objects, and carry objects. GRF data can be combined with kinematic data using a link segment model to calculate internal forces within the limb that cannot be measured directly (see Chapter 19 for details). As the name suggests, it has three heads. The hoof may be represented by different combinations of markers with radiographic identification of the center of rotation of the DIP joint relative to the hoof markers. *Position of center of mass is expressed along the x-axis (longitudinal, positive distally from the more proximal marker), then along the y-axis (perpendicular to x-axis, positive cranially). On the human only, color the fibula (P) dark blue. The scapula is a triangular flattened bone which glides over the rib cage. 6.3, Table 6.2) is a moderately large and powerful muscle with fairly long fibers (Payne et al., 2004). In the canter, overall limb loading decreases with less elastic energy being stored in the SDF tendon, and the DDF tendon being more loaded (Butcher et al., 2007). The actions of triceps are to extend the elbow, to retract and extend the distal forelimb and, perhaps, to extend the limb when it is being used to raise the forehand. These features suggest that serratus ventralis thoracis bears primary responsibility for anti-gravitational support of the trunk, whereas the other extrinsic muscles move the forelimb relative to the trunk during the swing phase or advance the trunk over the grounded limb during the stance phase. The bulk of the musculature is in the proximal limb, which reduces the moment of inertia of the limb as a whole. toward or near the belly (front of a primate or lower surface of a lower … Both muscles insert on the dorsal scapula and have fiber orientations ranging from vertical in the middle of the muscle to almost longitudinal towards the extremities. 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