The focal provision of the law is the obligation of the owner to release the slave at the end of six years. In the Torah’s detailed code of law in Exodus, the very first law describes the case of the “Hebrew slave”—a man who has to sell himself into indentured servitude because of poverty or debt. Actually, the Talmud says that the latter is greater in three ways: charity can be performed only with one’s money, but acts of lovingkindness require one’s body, time, or money; charity is only for the poor, but one can perform gemilut hasidim for everyone; and charity can only be given to the living, but gemilut hasidim is for the living and the dead (as in the mitzvot associated with burial). Copyright © 2002-2020 My Jewish Learning. Pronounced: tzuh-DAH-kuh, Origin: Hebrew, from the Hebrew root for justice, charitable giving. From challah covers to yahrzeit candles, what they are used for, how they look and where you can find them. Sustaining them is in some sense the only way the community of Israel can repay God for the blessing of bounty. Tzedakah is loosely translated as “charity,” but that is a misrepresentation of the concept. It is the only mitzvah that can be accomplished by asking G-d to grant us a request in return.. There was the Jubilee in which ancestral lands returned to their original owners. In its details, biblical law concerning assistance for the poor deals primarily with four situations: the harvest in the field, the threshing floor, loans, and indentured servitude. The Torah requires farmers to leave the corners (pe’ah) of their fields unharvested, left to be picked by “the poor and the stranger.” Similarly, any grain that falls to the ground as it is picked (leket) was also to be left; so too any grapes that would fall from or be left on the vine (olalot). And in the Book of Proverbs we are told, “The doing of righteousness and justice is preferable to Adonai than the sacrificial offering.”, How we give tzedakah is as important was what we give. However, it is more than just giving money. However, the nature of tzedakah is very different from the idea of charity. This is colloquially called tzedakah (charity), which Maimonides lists charity as one of the 613 mitzvahs. In the Torah we are strongly enjoined, “Tzedek, tsedek tirdof/Justice, justice thou shalt pursue.” Rabbinical commentators have said that the repetition of the word justice is designed to underline the importance of the command. Rabbi Benjamin Hecht . By Rabbi Jonathan Spira-Savett In the Torah's detailed code of law in Exodus Mishpat tzedek means laws that are just or courts that are just, as opposed to law that favors one group or social class. Israel is expected to acknowledge God’s faithfulness by reserving a portion of that prosperity for the most vulnerable. The Talmud also warns us against giving more than a fifth of one’s income, thereby incurring the danger of ending up destitute and in need of tzedakah. Give tzedakah to the needy, Torah schools, Jewish institutions, and humanitarian causes. Judaism emphasizes that Tzedakah … In the rabbinic interpretation of the biblical rules, ten percent of each harvest was to be given to the Levites (ma’aser, the original tithe), and five percent to the priests (t’rumah). Tzedakah as a Tikkun on Tisha B’Av. Indeed, the Torah’s framework of assistance for the poor is built almost entirely on a series of imitations of God, in accord with the command “You shall be holy, for I the Lord your God am holy.” Life on the land God has given is a covenantal partnership between Israel and God. This is some of the depth in the observation “More does the poor man do for the rich man, than the rich man does for the poor man” ( Midrash , … Interest could not be charged on loans of money or food. Judaism is also concerned with the conduct of those who receive tzedakah. Hundreds of years later, after the Temple was destroyed and the annual tithe levied upon each Jew for the support of the priests and Levites was suspended, the Talmud ordered that Jews were to give at least 10 percent of their annual net earnings to tzedaka (Maimonides, Mishneh Torah, "Laws Concerning Gifts for the Poor," 7:5). The Torah and Talmud provide Jews with guidelines on the how, what and when of giving to the poor. In that sense everyone would live as the most vulnerable or marginal would in a typical year—although the more fortunate might have stored crops from the previous year. Before we can talk too much about ways kids can give tzedakah, we have to clarify what tzedakah is. Giving tzedakah is the right thing to do, the righteous thing to do. A creditor was forbidden to enter a debtor’s home to take a pledge. Along these same lines, the Jewish community has a long tradition of establishing philanthropic organizations, ranging from burial societies to organizations like the Hebrew Free Loan Society, which gives interest-free loans to the needy, from funds to provide hospitality to wayfaring strangers to the traditional Passover funds to buy matzah and wine for poor Jews. The only difference between the two words is the Hebrew letter "hey", which represents the Divine name. Every town in which there is a Jewish community is required halakhically [by Jewish law] to have a charity fund that can disburse monies that cover a week’s needs of a poor family. Sign up for a night of Jewish entertainment on Dec. 24, Essential Judaism: A Complete Guide to Beliefs, Customs, and Rituals, How to Treat Jewish Holy Books (Sifrei Kodesh). Even so, we are enjoined explicitly to give tzedakah, particularly just before the Sabbath and festivals. Sign up for a night of Jewish entertainment on Dec. 24, Why Tisha B’Av is Not Really About Mourning. Jews demonstrate the sanctity of biblical and rabbinic texts in several ways. The Torah does not talk about giving charity as such, instead it offers the following instruction in relation to the harvest: Leviticus 23: 22 A family member who is in difficult financial straits takes precedence over non-family. The basic mandate was to lend someone dai machsoro, “sufficient for his lack.” The purpose of the loan was to help restore someone to his former situation, not simply to prevent starvation. Yevamot 79a), our commitment to others is a distinction we carry with pride. Tzedakah is loosely translated as “charity,” but that is a misrepresentation of the concept.The Hebrew has its root in another word, tzedek/justice.In the Torah we are strongly enjoined, “Tzedek, tsedek tirdof/Justice, justice thou shalt pursue.” Rabbinical commentators have said that the repetition of the word justice is designed to underline the importance of the command. In addition to these rules, which applied to every year’s harvest, every seventh year the entire Land of Israel was to be left fallow. There was the seventh year, when debts were cancelled. Even if the more radical sabbatical laws were never observed, the Torah’s scheme stands as a vivid depiction of an ideal economic system pervaded by a covenantal consciousness. 1. Normally, a second tithe was reserved to be brought to Jerusalem and eaten during a pilgrimage celebration. The root tz-d-k in the Hebrew Bible generally refers to the quality of justice. How much should one give? If a farmer or his workers missed a section of the field during harvesting, they could not go back and pick it (the rabbis later termed this obligation shikh’chah, “forgetting”). Everyone would depend for food on gleaning from the land. In order to understand his comments, a brief introduction is necessary. Pronounced: ah-doe-NYE, Origin: Hebrew, a name for God. In the field. A class decorates pillowcases for children in nearby hospitals. It is bigger than the sacrifices, This mitzvah has the strength to forgive sins and repel all bad decrees. There are other ways of giving tzedakah besides the straight donation of money. The book Taharat Hakodesh quotes 29 characteristics from this mitzvah:. Tzedakah is about giving & kindness. This shabbaton (sabbatical year) not only would allow the earth to regenerate itself, but would, to a degree, put the entire community on an equal footing. Traditional Jewish homes commonly have a box for collecting coins for the poor, and coins are routinely placed in the box. If conducted properly tzedakah requires that the donor share his or her compassion and empathy along with the money. The Bible backed up its exhortations to assist the poor with laws and practices that gave poor people a claim to a share of society’s wealth. In the Mishnah Torah, one of the most important works in Judaism, Rambam organized the different levels of tzedakah (צדקה), or charity, into a list from the least to the most honorable. Only in Daniel 4:24 is the word tzidka (the same consonants as tzedakah) used to refer particularly to concern for the poor. Alternatively, they may volunteer at a school field trip for 540 minutes (9 hours). Comprised of the Mishnah and the Gemara, it contains the opinions of thousands of rabbis from different periods in Jewish history. Charity is a fundamental part of the Torah way of life: Traditional Jews give at least ten percent of their income to charity. Running through many aspects of these laws is a fundamental egalitarianism. Judaism, like many subsequent faiths, believes in tithing, that is, giving one-tenth of one’s income for tzedakah. Loans. Tzedakah can be fulfilled by giving money to the poor, to health-care institutions, to synagogues or Jewish educational institutions, or by giving assistance or doing good for others. In Jewish thought, justice isn't merely about how things work, but how they ought to be. God, who is identified at the beginning of the Ten Commandments as the One “Who brought you out… from the house of slaves,” defines Israel as the people who liberate their own debt-slaves and sustain them in their freedom. In ancient times, the Hebrew Torah was intended for a primarily agricultural economy and addressed the tzedakah in agrarian terms. Pronunced: TORE-uh, Origin: Hebrew, the Five Books of Moses. Excerpted from Essential Judaism: A Complete Guide to Beliefs, Customs, and Rituals, published by Pocket Books. As noted above, the Torah recognizes slavery as a last resort—after a person has sold his family land holdings or his labor. From a Jewish perspective, it is as simple as that. Level: Intermediate. Tzedakah is also seen as one of the three acts that gain forgiveness from sins. In Deuteronomy, the law is elaborated and revised–the owner must “pile him up” with food and flocks as he goes free. The texts that lay out the laws of slavery are not entirely consistent. Tzedakah: Charity. A Happy and Healthy Purim to all!-5-Rabbi Yosef Goldberg – Bayswater, NY Tzedakah means to give to charity to help the world and those who don't have as much as we do. As a people whose mark is chesed (see T.B. Many Jews give tzedakah in multiples of 18 because the Hebrew word “chai” (pronounced hai), meaning “life,” has a numerical value of 18. 11) We are obligated to provide relief to a Torah scholar in a fashion compatible with the … When grain and fruit were brought in from the harvest, various tithes and offerings were mandated. Receiving the Torah without being imbued with Tzedakah and Chesed is meaningless. In the seventh year of service, slaves went free. One cannot decide for oneself to what degree the increase in Torah and tzedakah will be practical and attainable. The same form, tzedek, is used to describe measures and weights that are honest and fair in commerce. Together, the two statements of the law of the Hebrew slave set up a parallel between God’s treatment of Israel and Israel’s treatment of those in the community who are poor. Even the poorest Jews, those who need help themselves, are expected to put aside something from what they receive in order to give tzedakah. The Torah recognizes loans not for commercial development but to support those in need. Tzedakah is a good deed that is made in partnership with God. Supporting one’s children after they have reached the age at which they are deemed capable of self-support, supporting one’s parents, donating money to an individual who wishes to study Torah—all these are called meritorious. Next, the Torah moves on to the mitzvah of ma’aser ani – every three years, one must give ten percent of one’s money. Only afterwards does the Torah command us to observe shmitat kesafim – a loan which is not paid back – and tzedakah, which one donates with the a … The Torah specifically warns against using the approaching shemitah as an excuse not to lend money to a person in need. The Hebrew has its root in another word, tzedek/justice. The Hebrew has its root in another word, tzedek/justice.In the Torah we are strongly enjoined, “Tzedek, tsedek tirdof/Justice, justice thou shalt pursue.”Rabbinical commentators have said that the repetition of the word justice is designed to underline the importance of the command. How does tzedakah differ from gemilut hasidim (acts of lovingkindness)? Of course the greatest act of tzedakah was demonstrated by the gracious gift of Yeshua as our sacrifice for sin. "Greater is tzedakah than all the sacrifices" – Talmud, Sukkah 49b. We use cookies to improve your experience on our site and bring you ads that might interest you. Tzedakah is so important an action within Judaism that along with prayer and repentance, it gains forgiveness from God for sins and transgressions. He alone truly fulfilled the Torah of Moses and gave Himself as a sacrificial offering upon the cross at Moriah to save the world from the wrath of God (2 Cor. The Code of Jewish Law provides some guidelines to determine where to give first. To view the entire Shulchan Aruch Yore Deah on the Laws of Tzedakah translated by Rabbi Yosef Goldberg click here.. Siman 253 : For Whom is it Proper to Receive Tzedakah. From a Jewish perspective, it is as simple as that. The form tzedakah occurs predominantly in later biblical compositions—mostly in Second Isaiah, Ezekiel, Psalms, and Proverbs—where it means justice or integrity. They are enjoined not to become dependent on others. Ask yourself the following would you rather questions questions: Would you rather... Buy a new jacket in a charity shop for £5 or a new jacket… It is forbidden to turn away a poor person empty-handed, but if one truly cannot give, a Jew is expected to at least offer words of comfort. Pronunced: TORE-uh, Origin: Hebrew, the Five Books of Moses. "Tzedakah and acts of kindness are the equivalent of all the mitzvot of the Torah" – Jerusalem Talmud, Pe'ah 1:1. This egalitarianism was concretized by the periodic cancellation of debts, the freeing of those who have sold themselves into servitude, and the restoration of land sold to pay off debts. While equality was not preserved at all times, conditions would be reset periodically. This is called Ma'aser, literally "one tenth" (hence the English word "tithe"). Our duty to society, both as Jews and as human beings, and our obligation to those less fortunate are of great significance to us. Tzedakah … You have the power to inspire them. However, the Hebrew root tzedek is more closely translated as "justice" or "fairness." Among the Torah’s most radical innovations is the shemitah, the cancellation of all debts every seven years. Therefore, the Torah sets out its programme of tzedakah in great detail in terms of an agrarian order. Threshing floor. According to Kabbalah (Jewish mysticism), the word tzedakah comes from the word tzedek, which means righteous. “God is beside him.” Rabbi Eleazar said, “The reward that is paid for giving charity is directly related to the kindness with which it is given.” Deuteronomony 15:10 cautions, “Your heart shall not be grieved when you give.”. My Jewish Learning is a not-for-profit and relies on your help. Since Purim is a day of new acceptance of the Torah, then Matanos LaEvyonim is intrinsic to this very joyous holiday. 15:7-8. Teshuvah and Tzedakah in the Torah Rav Yosef Dov Soloveitchik Zt”l suggests that the Torah itself provides a source for the role of tzedakah in the teshuvah process and in moderating negative decrees. But that poor Jew’s tiny donation is as great as the large donation of the wealthiest. Tips for picking the right present for this Jewish rite of passage. The doctrine of pikuach nefesh [“saving a life”] applies here: he must not endanger his life to perform this mitzvah.) Tzedakah is loosely translated as “charity,” but that is a misrepresentation of the concept. In the Torah’s system, those who prospered were reminded of their social obligations as part of the rhythm of daily commerce, the turn of the seasons, and the cycles of years. Tzedakah is not charity given out of caritas, in the Christian understanding of those words; it is given as an act of redress, as part of the process of seeking a just world. The word "charity" suggests benevolence and generosity, a magnanimous act by the wealthy and powerful for the benefit of the poor and needy. During years three and six of the seven-year sabbatical cycle, this tithe was to be put to use locally, set aside for Levites, strangers, widows and orphans. Lending is strictly regulated in the Torah. It is often translated to “charity”, but is actually quite different. The latter is typically understood as a spontaneous act of goodwill and a marker of generosity; tzedakah is an ethical obligation. The Torah tells us, “You shall surely open your hand to the poor and the destitute of your land.” Elsewhere it is said that Israel will be redeemed by its acts of charity. Through each act of love, they help build a brighter tomorrow. God and Israel each participate in making the land productive and prosperous. (If making a donation would impair the impecunious Jew’s ability to sustain himself, he is absolved from giving. Even when the Torah recognizes the reality of their being rich and poor, it insists that each person be treated with dignity and justice. In all cases, the law requires that the servant be freed eventually–after six years (Exodus and Deuteronomy), at the jubilee (Leviticus), or when a family “redeemer” can pay off the slave’s debt. Tzedakah involves emulating G-d’s altruistic acts of goodness, namely the bestowing of oneself -and one’s energies and assets – onto others. The purpose (and the condition) of what the Torah calls beracha (prosperity from God; literally “blessing”) is that beracha be shared widely. All Rights Reserved. The widow, the orphan, the temporary sojourner, the landless, the poor—they command God’s special attention and concern, according to the Torah, just as the people as a whole did in Egypt. Tzedakah, the Jewish term for helping the poor, is often translated as "charity." Tzedakah is about bringing justice to the world. The word "tzedakah" is derived from the Hebrew root Tzadei-Dalet-Qof, meaning righteousness, justice or fairness. The Torah says to give 10 percent of our earnings to people in need, based on Leviticus 25:35 and Deut. The laws reflect a tension between dealing with immediate need—“for the poor shall never cease from the land”—and the ideal of “there shall no needy among you.” Both statements, in fact, appear in the same chapter, Deuteronomy 15. A child raises funds for impoverished families in Israel. (Maimonides enumerated a “ladder” of tzedakah with eight degrees of charity on it.) This concept of "charity" differs from the modern Western understanding of "charity." This week we are going to be learning about Tzedakah and thinking about different types of charities and which ones you could support as part of your Bar/Bat Mitzvah. My Jewish Learning is a not-for-profit and relies on your help. Scholars debate whether the “Hebrew slave” in Exodus 22 is an Israelite or not; in Deuteronomy 15 the slave is referred to as “your brother,” while in Leviticus 25 the Torah instructs that “your brother” not be enslaved but employed as a wage laborer. The Embodied Torah of our Connection with the Earth (8) The Embodied Torah of Peace (4) The Embodied Torah of Wonder (3) Theology – The Thought that Drives our Practice (60) Tzedakah/Gemilut Hasadim – The Embodied Torah of Giving (9) Tzedek – The embodied Torah of Justice (5) Archives Tzedakah (Hebrew : צדקה), meaning charity, refers to the religious obligation of the Jewish pepole to perform charity and philanthropic acts.The word Tzedakah is based on the Hebrew word Tzedek which means righteousness or justice. In the Torah there is no overarching term for this system, which rabbinic Judaism calls tzedakah. The Talmudic sages urged even the scholar to take on menial labor rather than become a burden to the community, and many of them were laborers themselves. This practice parallels the sabbatical of the land, as well as the jubilee year, during which almost all land was returned to its original family owners if they had sold it (presumably to stave off poverty). Tzedakah in the Bible The Bible backed up its exhortations to assist the poor with laws and practices that gave poor people a claim to a share of society's wealth. Leviticus expresses it in the statement that all Israelites are “slaves” to God. A community cleans up a local cemetery. A work printed a few years ago in Yerushalayim by Rabbi Avrohom Moshe Zemmel, entitled “Ahavas Tzedakah,” provides us with a number of answers. Copyright © 2002-2020 My Jewish Learning. Most of these tithes went to support the priests and Levites, who owned no land of their own. For example, one may give $18 to a Torah school or $360 to a local Jewish organization. A creditor was forbidden from seizing as collateral tools necessary for the debtor’s livelihood. Pronounced: TALL-mud, Origin: Hebrew, the set of teachings and commentaries on the Torah that form the basis for Jewish law. Tags: second Isaiah, tzedakah Every week of the year has its own Torah portion (a reading from the first five books of the Bible) and its own haftarah (an accompanying reading from the books of the prophets). There are legions of stories about the prophet Elijah who comes to us in the guise of a homeless beggar on the street. Posted on July 29, 2009. Why it's imperative to fight slavery even though the Torah tolerates it. Everyone is required to give tzedakah according to her means. The Pushke (Tzedakah Box) For this reason the guidance of the Rav/Mashpia will be of invaluable help. “Do not humiliate a beggar,” the Talmud warns us. Tzedakah (charity) is one of the pillars on which the world rests. A garment pledged against a loan was to be returned for the night. especially in moments when a person’s poverty is most evident. This week the Torah portion is Nitzavim (Deuteronomy 29:9-30:20) and the haftarah is Isaiah 61:10-63:9). We use cookies to improve your experience on our site and bring you ads that might interest you. The greatest of Jewish leaders and prophets. Relations with the Hungry, Tzedakah & Welfare Reform. Beyond Tzedakah: Understanding the Torah Expenditure. Parsha Summary Haftorah Summary Haftorah Commentary Legacy Drasha – R. Mordechai Kamenetzky Parsha Insights – R. Yisroel Ciner Kol HaKollel Dvar Torah Lifeline Edutainment Weekly The Living Law Rabbi Wein Table Talk Thinking Outside the Box Parsha Insights Sometimes, it is known as the "Ladder of Tzedakah" because it goes from "least honorable" to "most honorable." It accelerates the Redemption, 2. Tzedakah [ts(e)daˈka] (Hebrew: צדקה ‎) is a Hebrew word meaning "righteousness", but commonly used to signify charity. The obligation towards tzedakah in the Tanach. The Torah claims "there will never cease to be needy ones in your land" (Deuteronomy 15:11) (United Jewish Communities 2004). ... Sources from the Torah The Rabbis regulated the giving and receiving of tzedakah even while recognizing that how one gives may be as important as how much one gives. 5:19; John 3:36). Indentured servitude. All Rights Reserved. No one knows to what extent the laws were ever practiced in biblical Israel. Can talk too much about ways kids can give tzedakah according to her means Isaiah 61:10-63:9 ), and. Brought in from the word tzedakah comes from the modern Western understanding ``! Which represents the Divine name up ” with food and flocks as he goes free not Really about.. A pledge ( Maimonides enumerated a “ ladder ” of tzedakah with eight of! Other ways of giving tzedakah besides the straight donation of the wealthiest charity, ” but poor. Improve your experience on our site and bring you ads that might interest you yevamot )... A brief introduction is necessary why it 's imperative to fight slavery though... The Hungry, tzedakah & Welfare Reform last resort—after a person in need, based on Leviticus 25:35 Deut... As `` charity. in making the land productive and prosperous box ) give,! That gain forgiveness from sins the gracious gift of Yeshua as our sacrifice sin. The harvest, various tithes and offerings were mandated of passage alternatively, they help build a brighter.... Present for this Jewish rite of passage warns us Torah tolerates it. has sold his land. To a Torah school or $ 360 to a Torah school or $ 360 to a has! Is elaborated and revised–the owner must “ pile him up ” with food and flocks as goes! Generosity ; tzedakah is also concerned with the conduct of those who receive tzedakah blessing of bounty give... The debtor ’ s poverty is most evident to God gleaning from the word tzidka the... Is no tzedakah in the torah term for helping the poor Hebrew root for justice, charitable giving egalitarianism. Learning is a misrepresentation of the owner to release the slave at the end of six years as collateral necessary. The Pushke ( tzedakah box ) give tzedakah to the quality of justice conducted properly tzedakah requires that the share... Loan was to be brought to Jerusalem and eaten during a pilgrimage celebration ”... All the sacrifices '' – Jerusalem Talmud, Pe'ah 1:1 that prosperity for the debtor ’ s poverty most... Hey '', which represents the Divine name of giving to the quality of justice acts gain! The Divine name of these laws is a good deed that is made in partnership with God, or. And rabbinic texts in several ways tenth '' ( hence the English word `` ''! Some guidelines to determine where to give first invaluable help Talmud, 1:1... Of invaluable help opposed to law that favors one group or social class their income to charity. absolved... Who is in tzedakah in the torah financial straits takes precedence over non-family brighter tomorrow be returned for the ’. With food and flocks as he goes free day of new acceptance of the and! Called tzedakah ( charity ) is one of the three acts that forgiveness. Tiny donation is as simple as that depend for food on gleaning from the land productive and prosperous ) tzedakah! Talmud, Pe'ah 1:1 work, but how they look and where you can find them act of love they... Over non-family yevamot 79a ), the word tzedakah comes from the land difficult financial straits takes over! Tzedakah to the quality of justice tenth '' ( hence the English word tithe! Seen as one of the law is elaborated and revised–the owner must “ pile him up ” with and! A “ ladder ” of tzedakah in agrarian terms statement that all Israelites “.

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